Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna. The fourth (the youngest) daughter of His Majesty the Emperor Nicholas II and Her Majesty the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna was born on June 18, 1901 in Peterhof.

Anastasia Nikolaevna is the Grand Duchess. She is the fourth (the youngest) daughter of His Majesty the Emperor Nicholas II and Her Majesty the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. She was born in Peterhof. There are two versions of why the name «Anastasia» was given to the newborn. According to the first version, the girl was named after the close friend of the Russian Empress Anastasia (Stana) Nikolaevna, princess of Montenegro. Margaret Yeger, who wrote a memoir «Six Years at the Russian Imperial Court», presented the second version of the choice of the name.

She claimed that Anastasia was named after the pardon granted by Nicholas II in honor of the daughter’s birth to the students of St. Petersburg University, who participated in anti-government unrest. The name «Anastasia» means «redivivus». At the christening as Grand Duchess, she received the Order of St. Catherine 1 st degree.

Anastasia was not simple in nature. At home for her merry, irrepressible childishness, she even got the nickname «shvibz», the Russian word for «imp».

Anastasia was a vivacious and energetic child. She was short and inclined to be chubby, and her sisters called her «kubyshka», but it did not stop her from climbing trees and refusing to come down, she was fond of playing hide and seek and playing other games, playing balalaika and guitar, she loved to weave flowers and ribbons into her hair and taught her sisters.

Nicholas wrote in his diary: «Around 3 o’clock Alix began to have severe pain. At 4 o’clock I got up and went to my room and got dressed. Exactly at 6 am my daughter Anastasia was born. Everything happened under excellent conditions soon and, thank God, without complications. Thanks to the fact that it all began and ended, while everyone was still sleeping, we both had a sense of calm and seclusion! After that, I started writing telegrams for relatives all over the world. Fortunately, Alix feels well. The baby weighs 11½ pounds and has a height of 55 cm

Name

Grand Duchess was named after the close friend of the Russian Empress Anastasia Nikolaevna, princess of Montenegro. «Hypnotist» Philip, without

having lost his head after the failed prophecy, immediately predicted to her «an amazing life and a special destiny.»

«Redivivus» (Reborn)

Margaret Yeger, the author of the memoirs Six Years at the Russian Imperial Court, remembered that Anastasia was named in honor of the fact that the emperor pardoned and reinstated students who had been imprisoned for participating in riots in St. Petersburg, because the name «Anastasia» means «reborn,» in the depiction of this saint, there are usually broken chains

Full Title

The full title of Anastasia Nikolaevna sounded like Her Imperial Highness the Grand Duchess of Russia Anastasia Romanova. Generally she was called by her first name and patronym, Anastasia Nikolaevna, and her title was not used. Other family nicknames for Anastasia were «Malenkaya,» meaning «little (one)»,Nastaska, Nastya, «kubyshka» — for a small height (157 cm) and tendency to chubby and «shvibzik» – for liveliness and endless pranks and leprosy.

Living conditions

According to the memoirs of contemporaries, the children of the emperor were not indulged in luxury. Anastasia lived in a room with her older sister Maria. The walls of the room were gray, the ceiling was decorated with images of butterflies. On the walls were icons and photographs. Furniture in white and green colors, the furniture is simple, almost economies, a couch with embroidered pads, and an army cot, on which the Grand Duchess slept all year round.

The bed was moved around the room, depending on the time of the year. In winter, it stood in the lighter and warmer part of the room, and in the summer sometimes even on the balcony to relax from the stuffiness and heat.

The same bed was taken with them on vacation to the Livadia Palace, and the Grand Duchess slept on it during the Siberian exile. Next-door room, divided in half by certain, was a common boudoir and bathroom for Grand Duchesses.

The life of the Grand Duchesses was rather monotonous. Breakfast at 9 o’clock, lunch at 13.00 or at 12.30 on Sundays. At five o’clock — tea, at eight — dinner, and the food was simple and unpretentious. In the evenings, the girls played charades and embroidered while the father read them aloud.

Early in the morning, they took a cold bath, in the evening — warm, in which they added a few drops of perfume, and Anastasia preferred perfume Koti with a smell of violets.

This tradition has been preserved since the Catherine I. When the girls were small, servants carried the pails of water to the bathroom, when girls grew up — they carried pails themselves. There were two baths— the first bath since the reign of Nicholas I was large (according to the preserved tradition, all who washed in it, left their sign on the side), the other bath was smaller and intended for children.

Education

Anastasia received a home education, like other children of the emperor. The training began at the age of eight, the program included French, English and German, history, geography, Bible chairs, science, drawing, grammar, arithmetic, and dancing and music. Anastasia was not a diligent student.

She hated grammar, wrote with horrible mistakes, and called arithmetic with childish spontaneity «swinishness.»

An English teacher, Sydney Gibbs, remembered that she once tried to bribe him with a bouquet of flowers to raise her mark, and after his refusal gave these flowers to the teacher of the Russian language – Petrov.

Life of Royal Children

Mostly the family lived in the Alexander Palace, occupying only a part of several dozen rooms. Sometimes they moved to the Winter Palace, although it was very large and cold, the girls Tatiana and Anastasia were often sick here.

In the middle of June, the family went on trips on the Imperial yacht «Standart», usually — on the Finnish skerries, landing occasionally on the islands for short excursions. Especially the imperial family took the fancy a small bay, which was christened the Bay of Standard. There they had picnics, or played tennis on the court, which the emperor arranged with his own hands.

They rested in the Livadia Palace. The imperial family lived in the main rooms, several courtiers, guards and servants lived in the annexes. They bathed in the warm sea, built sand fortresses and towers, sometimes went to the city to ride a whirlicote through the streets or visit the shops.

It was impossible in St. Petersburg, because any appearance of the royal family in public created a fuss and excitement.

Сolonel in chief

In 1901, after her birth, the Caspian 148th Infantry Regiment received the name of St. Anastasia of Sirmium in honor of the princess. It began to celebrate its regimental feast on December 22, in the day of the Saint. The regimental church was raised in Peterhof by the architect Mikhail Fedorovich Verzhbitsky. In 14 years old, she became his honorary commander (Colonel), about what Nicholas made a corresponding entry in his diary. Henceforth, the regiment was officially named the 148th Caspian of Her Imperial Highness the Grand Duchess Anastasiya infantry regiment.

War

During the war, the Empress gave many of the palace rooms under the hospital premises. Senior sisters Olga and Tatiana along with mother became sisters of mercy; Maria and Anastasia, as too young for such hard work, became patronesses of the hospital. Both sisters gave their own money for the purchase of medicines, read aloud to the wounded , knit them things, played cards and checkers, took dictations letters to home, and in the evenings entertained by telephone conversations, sewed linen, prepared bandages and lint.

Maria and Anastasia gave concerts to the wounded and tried their best to divert their thoughts. Days on end, they spent in the hospital; reluctantly pull away from work for the sake of lessons.

Memories of Lili Dehn

According to the memoirs of Lili Den (Julia Alexandrovna von Den), a close friend of Alexandra Feodorovna, in February 1917, at the very height of the revolution, the children got measles one by one. Anastasia was down with measles after all her children, when palace in Tsarskoye Selo was already surrounding by insurgent troops. The Tsar was at this time in the headquarters of the commander-in-chief, in Mogilev, and only the Empress with the children remained in the palace.

On the night of 2 March 1917, Lili Dehn stay overnight in the palace with the Grand Duchess Anastasia in the Crimson Room. So that the children do not worry, they were told that the troops surrounding the palace and the distant shots are just teachings. Alexandra Feodorovna intended to «hide the truth

from them for as long as possible». On March 2 at 9 o’clock, they learned of the Tsar’s demise.

Chronicle of Events

On Wednesday, March 8, Count Paul Benckendorff appeared in the palace, to inform that the Provisional Government had decided to expose the imperial family to house arrest in Tsarskoye Selo. It was suggested to make a list of people who want to stay with them. Lily Dehn immediately offered her services.

On March 9, the abdication of the father was reported to the children. A few days later Nicholas returned. Life under house arrest was quite tolerable. It was necessary to reduce the number of dishes during lunch, as the menu of the royal family was publicly publicized from time to time, and it was not worth giving another reason for provoking an already vengeful crowd. The curious often looked through the fence, as the family walks through the park and sometimes met them with whistling and cursing, so the walk had to be shortened.

On June 22, 1917, it was decided to shave the girls’ heads, since their hair came out because of the persistent temperature and strong medicine. Alexei made him shave, too, thus causing his mother extreme displeasure.

Study, in spite of everything

In spite of everything, children’s education continued. The whole process was led by Gilliard, the teacher of French; Nicholas himself taught children of geography and history; Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden took upon herself the lessons of English and music; Mademoiselle Schneider taught of arithmetic; Countess Hendrikova taught of drawing; Empress Alexandra taught of Orthodoxy.

The eldest, Olga, despite the fact that her education was finished, was often present at the lessons and read a lot, improving what she had already learned.

She wrote with mistakes, and called arithmetic «swinishness.»

An English teacher, Sydney Gibbs, remembered that she once tried to bribe him with a bouquet of flowers to raise her mark, and after his refusal gave these flowers to the teacher of the Russian language – Petrov.

During the Great War, Anastasia and her sister Mary visited the hospital in Tsarskoye Selo, in which their mother and elder sisters worked.

Like all in the family of Nicholas II, the Grand Duchess loved animals. She had Spitz Shvibzik. When he died in 1915, the Grand Duchess was inconsolable for several weeks. Later she had another dog, Jimmy. He accompanied her during the exile.

The exile

On august 26, the imperial family arrived in Tobolsk on the ship «Rus’». The house intended for them was not yet ready, so they spent the first eight days on the boat.

Household care

Finally, under guard, the imperial family was taken to a two-story governor mansion. The corner bedroom on the second floor was given to the girls. They settled there on the same army cots captured from the Alexander Palace. Anastasia decorated additionally her corner with her favorite photographs and drawings.

Life in the governor’s mansion was quite monotonous; the main entertainment was to watch the passers-by from the window. The lessons were from 9.00 to 11.00. Then there was one-hour break for a walk with father. From 12.00 to 13.00 were the lessons. Dinner. From 14.00 to 16.00 walks and simple entertainment like home performances, or in the winter — skating a hand-built slide. Anastasia, according to her own words, enthusiastically harvested firewood and sprig bits. Then followed the evening service and going to bed. From the letter of Anastasia to the sister Mary.

«The iconostasis for Easter was arranged very well, everywhere firs and flowers. We had picture taken, I hope that will work out well. I am continuing to draw, they say — not bad, very nice. We played on the swing, that was when I roared with laughter, the fall was so wonderful! Indeed!

I told the sisters about it so many times yesterday that they got quite fed up, but I could go on to say it masses of times … and a have ten a penny to say to you. My Jimmy wakes up and coughs, so he sits at home, we make a bow. What weather we have had! One could just shout with joy. I sunburnt more than anyone else, weirdly. These days are boring and ugly, it is cold, and we were cold this morning, but of course we did not go home … Very sorry, I forgot to congratulate all of you on holidays; I kiss all of you dozen times. Everyone is very grateful to you for the letter! »

The ups and downs of life

In April 1918, the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the fourth convocation decided to transfer the former tsar to Moscow for trial. After a long hesitation, Alexandra decided to accompany her husband; Maria had to go with her to help her.

The other had to wait for them in Tobolsk. Olga had to take care of her sick brother, Tatyana had to keep a house, and Anastasia had «to entertain everyone». On the last night before the departure, no one slept a wink, and in the morning, when peasant carts for the tsar, the queen and accompanying people were brought to the doorstep, three girls — «three figures in gray» accompanied outgoing with tears away to very gates.

In the governor’s house

In a thin out house, life went on slowly and sadly. They wondered at books, read each other aloud, walked. Anastasia was still swinging on a swing, drawing and playing with her sick brother. According to the memoirs of Gleb Botkin, the son of physician in ordinary, who died with the royal family, he once saw Anastasia in the window, and bowed to her, but the guard immediately booted him out, threatening to shoot if he dared to come so close again.

Jewels

On May 3, 1918, it became clear that for some reason, the departure of the former king to Moscow was canceled and instead of this Nicholas, Alexandra and Mary were forced to stay in the house of the engineer Ipatiev in Yekaterinburg, requisitioned by the new government specifically to accommodate the royal name. In a letter marked with this date, the empress asked the daughters to «dispose of the medicines correctly» — this word meant jewels that they were able to hide and take with them. With the help of older sister Tatyana, Anastasia sewed up the remaining jewelry in her dress corset. At fortuitous combination of circumstances, it was supposed that due to it they could find a hole.

Reunion

On May 19, it was finally decided that the remaining daughters and Alexei would join their parents and Maria in Ipatiev’s house in Yekaterinburg. Next day, on May 20, all four sat down again on the steamship «Rus», which brought them to Tyumen. According to eyewitnesses, the girls were

transferred in locked cabins, Alexei rode along with his orderly named Nagorny, access to them in the belowdecks was forbidden even for a doctor.

Fortitude

On May 22, the steamship arrived in Tyumen, and then four children were taken to Yekaterinburg on a special train. Anastasia was maintaining at the same time an excellent disposition of spirit, in a letter in which she was telling about the trip, were notes of humor:

«My dear friend,

I will tell you how we rode. We went out early in the morning, and then took the train and I fell asleep, and then the other. We were all very tired, because we had not slept the whole night before. The first day was very stuffy and dusty, and we had to pull up curtains at every station so that no one saw us. One evening I looked out when we stopped at a small house, the station was not there, and it was possible to look outside. A little boy approached me and asked: «Mister, give a newspaper if you have it». I said: «I am not a mister I am lady and a have not a newspaper». At first, I did not understand why he decided that I was «mister», and then I remembered that my hair was short cut and together with the soldiers who accompanied us, we laughed at this story for a long time. In general, the trip was fun, and if there is time, I will tell you about the journey from the beginning to the end. Farewell, do not forget me. Everyone is kissing you.

Your Anastasia.»

House of Ipatiev

The train arrived in Yekaterinburg on May 23 at 9 o’clock in the morning. Upon arrival, the children were taken from arrived with them teacher of the French language Gilliard, the sailor Nagorny and the maid of honor. The carriages were submitted to the train and at 11 o’clock in the morning Olga, Tatiana, Anastasia and Aleksey were finally delivered to the engineer Ipatiev’s house.

Life in the «house of special operations» was monotonous, boring — nothing more. Breakfast at 9 o’clock. At 2.30 — lunch, at 5 — midday tea and dinner at 8. At 10:30 in the evening, the family went to bed. Anastasia, together with her sisters, sewed, walked around the garden, played cards and read spiritual books to her mother aloud. By-and-by, the girls were taught to bake bread, and they did it enthusiastically.

The last birthday

On Tuesday, June 18, 1918, Anastasia celebrated her last 17th birthday. The weather was excellent, only at the end of the day a small storm broke out. Lilac and lungwort bloomed. The girls baked bread, then Alexei was taken to the garden, and the whole family joined him. At 8 pm they had supper and played a few parties cards. They went to bed at the usual time, at 10.30 in the evening.